Nature consists of five basic elements: Akash [Ether/ Space], Vayu [Air], Agni [Fire], Jala [Water] and Pridhvi [Earth]. These are called as the Panchabhutas.
Man is a microcosm of nature. He is indivisible from the external environment [macrocosm]. Hence, these five elements are present in each and every individual.
Spaces are present in various parts of the human body: in the mouth, nose, thorax, respiratory tract and even in the cells, tissues, etc
Air is the element of movement, manifested in the pulsations of the heart, expansion and contraction of the lungs and all the movements governing the central nervous system
Fire governs the functions of metabolism, thinking and vision. Digestion is controlled by the fire element, the retina which perceives light is also activated by this element.
Water is manifested in the form of secretions in the digestive juices, salivary glands, etc
The Tridoshas are manifested in the body from these five basic elements.
Vata: Ether and Air
Pitta: Fire and Water
Kapha: Earth and Water
The Tridoshas are present in everybody. No individual is solely made up of any one particular dosha. Each individual is a combination of all three doshas, but with a predominant tendency towards one or more.
The Tridoshas govern the psychological and biological functions of the individual. In a healthy body, these doshas are in a balanced state. Diseases occur due to an imbalance or disorder in the doshas. Hence the Ayurvedic approach to treating a disease aims at bringing back the balance and order in the individual’s body constitution. Through Ayurvedic treatments and diet that compensate the aggravated doshas, the individual is healed.
As mentioned earlier, Man is the microcosm of the Nature. The changes in the external environment aggravates the doshas in the internal environment of the individual
Summer season has the attributes similar to Pitta: hot, dry, light
Fall season has the attributes similar to Vata: light, dry, subtle, cold, rough
Winter season has the attributes similar to Kapha: liquid, cold, heavy, sticky
Hence, Pitta is aggravated in the summer, Vata during the fall and Kapha during the winter season